Ion channels

Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore. Their functions include establishing a resting membrane potential, shaping action potentials and other electrical signals by gating the flow of ions across the cell membrane, controlling the flow of ions across secretory and epithelial cells, and regulating cell volume. Ion channels are present in the membranes of all cells. Ion channels are one of the two classes of ionophoric proteins, along with ion transporters (including the sodium-potassium pump, sodium-calcium exchanger, and sodium-glucose transport proteins).[1]

The study of ion channels often involves biophysics, electrophysiology, and pharmacology, while using techniques including voltage clamp, patch clamp, immunohistochemistry, X-ray crystallography, fluoroscopy, and RT-PCR. Their classification as molecules is referred to as channelomics.

Basic features
There are two distinctive features of ion channels that differentiate them from other types of ion transporter proteins:[2]

The rate of ion transport through the channel is very high (often 106 ions per second or greater).
Ions pass through channels down their electrochemical gradient, which is a function of ion concentration and membrane potential, “downhill”, without the input (or help) of metabolic energy (e.g. ATP, co-transport mechanisms, or active transport mechanisms).
Ion channels are located within the membrane of most cells and of many intracellular organelles. They are often described as narrow, water-filled tunnels that allow only ions of a certain size and/or charge to pass through. This characteristic is called selective permeability. The archetypal channel pore is just one or two atoms wide at its narrowest point and is selective for specific species of ion, such as sodium or potassium. However, some channels may be permeable to the passage of more than one type of ion, typically sharing a common charge: positive (cations) or negative (anions). Ions often move through the segments of the channel pore in single file nearly as quickly as the ions move through free solution. In many ion channels, passage through the pore is governed by a “gate”, which may be opened or closed in response to chemical or electrical signals, temperature, or mechanical force.

Ion channels are integral membrane proteins, typically formed as assemblies of several individual proteins. Such “multi-subunit” assemblies usually involve a circular arrangement of identical or homologous proteins closely packed around a water-filled pore through the plane of the membrane or lipid bilayer.[3][4] For most voltage-gated ion channels, the pore-forming subunit(s) are called the α subunit, while the auxiliary subunits are denoted β, γ, and so on.

Biological role
Because channels underlie the nerve impulse and because “transmitter-activated” channels mediate conduction across the synapses, channels are especially prominent components of the nervous system. Indeed, numerous toxins that organisms have evolved for shutting down the nervous systems of predators and prey (e.g., the venoms produced by spiders, scorpions, snakes, fish, bees, sea snails, and others) work by modulating ion channel conductance and/or kinetics. In addition, ion channels are key components in a wide variety of biological processes that involve rapid changes in cells, such as cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle contraction, epithelial transport of nutrients and ions, T-cell activation and pancreatic beta-cell insulin release. In the search for new drugs, ion channels are a frequent target.[5][6][7]

Diversity
There are over 300 types of ion channels just in the cells of the inner ear.[8] Ion channels may be classified by the nature of their gating, the species of ions passing through those gates, the number of gates (pores) and localization of proteins.

Further heterogeneity of ion channels arises when channels with different constitutive subunits give rise to a specific kind of current.[9] Absence or mutation of one or more of the contributing types of channel subunits can result in loss of function and, potentially, underlie neurologic diseases.

Classification by gating
Ion channels may be classified by gating, i.e. what opens and closes the channels. Voltage-gated ion channels open or close depending on the voltage gradient across the plasma membrane, while ligand-gated ion channels open or close depending on binding of ligands to the channel.[citation needed]

Voltage-gated
Main article: Voltage-gated ion channel
Voltage-gated ion channels open and close in response to membrane potential.

Digestion

Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma. In certain organisms, these smaller substances are absorbed through the small intestine into the blood stream. Digestion is a form of catabolism that is often divided into two processes based on how food is broken down: mechanical and chemical digestion. The term mechanical digestion refers to the physical breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller pieces which can subsequently be accessed by digestive enzymes. In chemical digestion, enzymes break down food into the small molecules the body can use.

In the human digestive system, food enters the mouth and mechanical digestion of the food starts by the action of mastication (chewing), a form of mechanical digestion, and the wetting contact of saliva. Saliva, a liquid secreted by the salivary glands, contains salivary amylase, an enzyme which starts the digestion of starch in the food; the saliva also contains mucus, which lubricates the food, and hydrogen carbonate, which provides the ideal conditions of pH (alkaline) for amylase to work. After undergoing mastication and starch digestion, the food will be in the form of a small, round slurry mass called a bolus. It will then travel down the esophagus and into the stomach by the action of peristalsis. Gastric juice in the stomach starts protein digestion. Gastric juice mainly contains hydrochloric acid and pepsin. As these two chemicals may damage the stomach wall, mucus is secreted by the stomach, providing a slimy layer that acts as a shield against the damaging effects of the chemicals. At the same time protein digestion is occurring, mechanical mixing occurs by peristalsis, which is waves of muscular contractions that move along the stomach wall. This allows the mass of food to further mix with the digestive enzymes.

After some time (typically 1–2 hours in humans, 4–6 hours in dogs, 3–4 hours in house cats),[citation needed] the resulting thick liquid is called chyme. When the pyloric sphincter valve opens, chyme enters the duodenum where it mixes with digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile juice from the liver and then passes through the small intestine, in which digestion continues. When the chyme is fully digested, it is absorbed into the blood. 95% of absorption of nutrients occurs in the small intestine. Water and minerals are reabsorbed back into the blood in the colon (large intestine) where the pH is slightly acidic about 5.6 ~ 6.9. Some vitamins, such as biotin and vitamin K (K2MK7) produced by bacteria in the colon are also absorbed into the blood in the colon. Waste material is eliminated from the rectum during defecation.[1]

Digestive system
Digestive systems take many forms. There is a fundamental distinction between internal and external digestion. External digestion developed earlier in evolutionary history, and most fungi still rely on it.[2] In this process, enzymes are secreted into the environment surrounding the organism, where they break down an organic material, and some of the products diffuse back to the organism. Animals have a tube (gastrointestinal tract) in which internal digestion occurs, which is more efficient because more of the broken down products can be captured, and the internal chemical environment can be more efficiently controlled.[3]

Some organisms, including nearly all spiders, simply secrete biotoxins and digestive chemicals (e.g., enzymes) into the extracellular environment prior to ingestion of the consequent “soup”. In others, once potential nutrients or food is inside the organism, digestion can be conducted to a vesicle or a sac-like structure, through a tube, or through several specialized organs aimed at making the absorption of nutrients more efficient.

Schematic drawing of bacterial conjugation. 1- Donor cell produces pilus. 2- Pilus attaches to recipient cell, bringing the two cells together. 3- The mobile plasmid is nicked and a single strand of DNA is transferred to the recipient cell. 4- Both cells recircularize their plasmids, synthesize second strands, and reproduce pili; both cells are now viable donors.

Biochemistry

Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.[1] By controlling information flow through biochemical signaling and the flow of chemical energy through metabolism, biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life. Over the last decades of the 20th century, biochemistry has become so successful at explaining living processes that now almost all areas of the life sciences from botany to medicine to genetics are engaged in biochemical research.[2] Today, the main focus of pure biochemistry is on understanding how biological molecules give rise to the processes that occur within living cells,[3] which in turn relates greatly to the study and understanding of tissues, organs, and whole organisms[4]—that is, all of biology.

Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology, the study of the molecular mechanisms by which genetic information encoded in DNA is able to result in the processes of life.[5] Depending on the exact definition of the terms used, molecular biology can be thought of as a branch of biochemistry, or biochemistry as a tool with which to investigate and study molecular biology.

Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, functions and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids, which provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life.[6] The chemistry of the cell also depends on the reactions of smaller molecules and ions. These can be inorganic, for example water and metal ions, or organic, for example the amino acids, which are used to synthesize prote

ins.[7] The mechanisms by which cells harness energy from their environment via chemical reactions are known as metabolism. The findings of biochemistry are applied primarily in medicine, nutrition, and agriculture. In medicine, biochemists investigate the causes and cures of diseases.[8] In nutrition, they study how to maintain health wellness and study the effects of nutritional deficiencies.[9] In agriculture, biochemists investigate soil and fertilizers, and try to discover ways to improve crop cultivation, crop storage and pest control.

 

History
Main article: History of biochemistry

Gerty Cori and Carl Cori jointly won the Nobel Prize in 1947 for their discovery of the Cori cycle at RPMI.
At its broadest definition, biochemistry can be seen as a study of the components, come pinga, and composition of living things and how they come together to become life, and the history of biochemistry may therefore go back as far as the ancient Greeks.[10] However, biochemistry as a specific scientific discipline has its beginning sometime in the 19th century, or a little earlier, depending on which aspect of biochemistry is being focused on. Some argued that the beginning of biochemistry may have been the discovery of the first enzyme, diastase (today called amylase), in 1833 by Anselme Payen,[11] while others considered Eduard Buchner’s first demonstration of a complex biochemical process alcoholic fermentation in cell-free extracts in 1897 to be the birth of biochemistry.[12][13] Some might also point as its beginning to the influential 1842 work by Justus von Liebig, Animal chemistry, or, Organic chemistry in its applications to physiology and pathology, which presented a chemical theory of metabolism,[10] or even earlier to the 18th century studies on fermentation and respiration by Antoine Lavoisier.[14][15] Many other pioneers in the field who helped to uncover the layers of complexity of biochemistry have been proclaimed founders of modern biochemistry, for example Emil Fischer for his work on the chemistry of proteins,[16] and F. Gowland Hopkins on enzymes and the dynamic nature of biochemistry.[17]

The term “biochemistry” itself is derived from a combination of biology and chemistry. In 1877, Felix Hoppe-Seyler used the term (biochemie in German) as a synonym for physiological chemistry in the foreword to the first issue of Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie (Journal of Physiological Chemistry) where he argued for the setting up of institutes dedicated to this field of study.[18][19] The German chemist Carl Neuberg however is often cited to have coined the word in 1903,[20][21][22] while some credited it to Franz Hofmeister.[23]

Male reproductive system

Male reproductive system
This article is about the reproductive system in human males. For the male reproductive systems of other animals, see reproductive system.
Male reproductive system
Dissection of human male external genitalia showing different surrounding structures of the scrotum, such as testis, epididymis etc.

Male reproductive system
The male reproductive system consists of a number of sex organs that play a role in the process of human reproduction. These organs are located on the outside of the body and within the pelvis.

The main male sex organs are the penis and the testicles which produce semen and sperm, which, as part of sexual intercourse, fertilize an ovum in the female’s body; the fertilized ovum (zygote) develops into a fetus, which is later born as an infant.

The corresponding system in females is the female reproductive system.

External male genital organs
Penis
Main article: Human penis
The penis is the male intromittent organ. It has a long shaft and an enlarged bulbous-shaped tip called the glans penis, which supports and is protected by the foreskin. When the male becomes sexually aroused, the penis becomes erect and ready for sexual activity. Erection occurs because sinuses within the erectile tissue of the penis become filled with blood. The arteries of the penis are dilated while the veins are compressed so that blood flows into the erectile cartilage under pressure. The penis is supplied by the pudendal artery.

Scrotum
Main article: Scrotum
The scrotum is a pouch-like structure that hangs behind the penis. It holds and protects the testicles. It also contains numerous nerves and blood vessels. During times of lower temperatures, the Cremaster muscle contracts and pulls the scrotum closer to the body, while the Dartos muscle gives it a wrinkled appearance; when the temperature increases, the Cremaster and Dartos muscles relax to bring down the scrotum away from the body and remove the wrinkles respectively.

The scrotum remains connected with the abdomen or pelvic cavity by the inguinal canal. (The spermatic cord, formed from spermatic artery, vein and nerve bound together with connective tissue passes into the testis through inguinal canal.)

Internal genital organs
Epididymis
Main article: Epididymis
The epididymis, a whitish mass of tightly coiled tubes cupped against the testicles, acts as a maturation and storage for sperm before they pass into the vas deferens, that carry sperm to the ampullary gland and prostatic ducts.

Vas deferens
Main article: Vas deferens
The vas deferens, also known as the sperm duct, is a thin tube approximately 30 centimetres (0.98 ft) long that starts from the epididymis to the pelvic cavity. It carries the spermatozoa from the epididymis to ejaculatory duct.

Accessory glands
Main article: Male accessory gland
Three accessory glands provide fluids that lubricate the duct system and nourish the sperm cells. They are the seminal vesicles, the prostate gland, and the bulbourethral glands (Cowper glands).

The embryonic and prenatal development of the male reproductive system is the process whereby the reproductive organs grow, mature and are established. It begins with a single fertilized egg and culminates 38 weeks later with birth of a male child. It is a part of the stages of sexual differentiation. The development of the male reproductive system coincides with the urinary system. The development of them can also be described together as the development of the urinary and reproductive organs.

Sexual determination

Human karyotype
Sexual identity is determined at fertilization when the genetic sex of the zygote has been initialized by a sperm cell containing either an X or Y chromosome. If this sperm cell contains an X chromosome it will coincide with the X chromosome of the ovum and a female child will develop. A sperm cell carrying a Y chromosome results in an XY combination, and a male child will develop.[1]

Genetic sex determines whether the gonads will be testes or ovaries. In the developing embryo if the testes are developed, it will produce and secrete male sex hormones during late embryonic development and cause the secondary sex organs of the male to develop.[2]

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
Individual organisms come and go, but, to a certain extent, organisms transcend time through producing offspring. Reproduction in animals occurs in two primary ways, through sexual reproduction and through asexual reproduction. While most animal organisms reproduce by sexual means, some are also capable of reproducing asexually.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
In sexual reproduction, two individuals produce offspring that inherit genetic characteristics from both parents.

Sexual reproduction introduces new gene combinations in a population through genetic recombination. The influx of new gene combinations allows members of a species to survive adverse or deadly environmental changes and conditions. This is a major advantage that sexually reproducing organisms have over those that reproduce asexually. Sexual reproduction is also advantageous as it is a way to remove harmful gene mutations from a population through recombination.

There are some disadvantages to sexual reproduction. Since a male and female of the same species are required to sexually reproduce, a considerable amount of time and energy is often spent in finding the right mate. This is especially important for animals that do not bear many young as the proper mate can increase the chances of survival for the offspring. Another disadvantage is that it takes longer for offspring to grow and develop in sexually reproducing organisms.

In mammals, for example, it can take several months for offspring to be born and many more months or years before they become independent.

GAMETES
In animals, sexual reproduction encompasses the fusion of two distinct gametes (sex cells) to form a zygote. Gametes are produced by a type of cell division called meiosis.

In humans, gametes are produced in the male and female gonads. When gametes unite in fertilization, a new individual is formed.

Gametes are haploid containing only one set of chromosomes. For example, human gametes contain 23 chromosomes. After fertilization, a zygote is produced from the union of an egg and sperm. The zygote is diploid, containing two sets of 23 chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes.

In the case of animals and higher plant species, the male sex cell is relatively motile and usually has a flagellum. The female gamete is non-motile and relatively large in comparison to the male gamete.

TYPES OF FERTILIZATION
There are two mechanisms by which fertilization can take place. The first is external (the eggs are fertilized outside of the body) and the second is internal (the eggs are fertilized within the female reproductive tract). A female egg is fertilized by a single sperm to ensure that the correct chromosome numbers are preserved.

In external fertilization, gametes are released into the environment (typically water) and are united at random. This type of fertilization is also referred to as spawning. In internal fertilization, gametes are united within the female.

In birds and reptiles, the embryo matures outside of the body and is protected by a shell. In most mammals, the embryo matures within the mother.

PATTERNS AND CYCLES
Reproduction is not a continuous activity and is subject to certain patterns and cycles. Oftentimes these patterns and cycles may be linked to environmental conditions which allow organisms to reproduce effectively.

For example, many animals have estrous cycles that occur during certain parts of the year so that offspring can typically be born under favorable conditions. Humans, however, do not undergo estrous cycles but menstrual cycles.

Likewise, these cycles and patterns are controlled by hormonal cues. Estrous can also be controlled by other seasonal cues such as rainfall.

All of these cycles and patterns allow organisms to manage the relative expenditure of energy for reproduction and maximize the chances of survival for the resulting offspring.

 

Infertility And Its Treatment

Infertility

Infertility refers to a condition where there is no pregnancy, even after one year of regular sexual intercourse. It covers a broad spectrum of conditions which can be minor or serious. Infertility related to men is initially investigated usually with a physical examination along with a discussion about past and present medical history. A physical exam determines the general health of both partners. The doctor will pay special attention to the outer sex organs as well as characteristics such as breast development and body hair in both partners to check for structural abnormalities or signs of possible hormone problems. The medical history gathers information that may suggest causes for infertility in each of the partners. Issues that will be discussed during the medical history apply to both the man and the woman.
Causes of low sperm count may include
The most common cause of male infertility is low sperm count or absence of sperm in the semen.

  •  Hormonal problems in the testicles or pituitary gland.
  •  Genetic factors.
  •  Testicular injury, infection or failure.
  •  Drug use.

Environmental factors including chemical pollution and exposure to radiation. Medical conditions such as a varicocele in the testicles, blocked ejaculation due to a surgical vasectomy, absence or blockage of a vas deferens due to birth defect or infections (The vas deferens is a narrow, muscular tube that connects the testicles to the prostate gland), retrograde ejaculation (the ejaculation of semen into the bladder rather than out through the penis), Chromosomal problems.
Problem caused by the immune system after an infection, vasectomy or injury to the testicles. The man may develop, an auto-immune response in which his immune system treats his sperm as ‘foreign’ and produce antibodies against them.

Testing to determine the cause of infertility in men
There are number of test to establish the cause of infertility. The first tests are done to check the man’s semen (Semen Analysis). A sample of semen may be analyzed to know the sperm count and quality of sperm. The Sperm mucus penetrationTest and theSperm penetration Assay(SPA) are used to test the sperm’s function. Scanning of the reproductive organs to see if there is a physical abnormalities and blood or urine test to check the hormone levels are also done.

Treatments
The treatments include drug therapy or possibly surgery to improve the situation. There is no effective treatment for lack of sperm. Low sperm count can be treated with artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization with partner or donor sperm. A testicular biopsy is done for men who have no sperm in the ejaculate to find out whether they have immature sperm in the testes. In vitro fertilization, intrauterine insemination, or gamete intra_fallopian transfer are done for reproduction in such cases. For retrograde ejaculation (the ejaculation of semen into the bladder rather than out through the penis), sperm may be recovered from the bladder, washed, and used for insemination. Surgery can be done to reverse a vasectomy or to repair enlarged veins in the scrotum (varicocele repair). Surgery also may be done to correct blockages or absence of the vas deferens.

Anatomy of the hamstring muscles

Anatomy of the ischio muscles

These muscles, located on the back of the thighs, number 3:

The femoral biceps muscle

The semi – tendinous muscle

The semi – membranous muscle

Anatomy muscle ischio leg

The femoral biceps muscle

Also referred to as biceps crural or long biceps, the femoral biceps muscle is composed of two heads. The longest of the two buy Activatrol Testosterone is born on the tendon of the posterior aspect of the ischium, while the shorter is found slightly below the level of the harsh line of the femur. The two chiefs gather to fix themselves on the head of fibula (the fibula).

Anatomy muscle ischio leg

The best exercises to muscle the hamstring

The semi-tendinous muscle

The semi – tendinous muscle, also referred to as the semi – tendinous muscle, is the innermost of the 3 hamstring muscles. Its insertion is comparable to that of the femoral biceps muscle, since the semi – tendinous muscle originates on the ischial tuberosity to attach to the upper surface of the tibia.

The semi-membranous muscle

Once called the semi-membranous muscle, this semi-membranous muscle is located outside and behind the semi-tendinous muscle. If it begins like the latter on the ischial tuberosity, it ends in three distinct points.

Located in the posterior leg of the thigh, these 3 hamstring muscles are innervated by the ischial nerve and play an essential role in walking and posture, as they directly affect the hip and knee joints.

The ischio muscles Legs and their functions

Antagonists of the quadriceps, situated in the anterior chamber of the thigh, the hamstring muscles can not be stressed when these quadriceps are in action and vice versa. Their essential function lies in the flexion of the leg. It is thus thanks to these muscles ischio legs that one can bring the femur in extension while preserving the knee in flexion.

The muscle of the knee joint, these hamstring ischio muscles also allow external rotation of this knee while also ensuring the retroversion of the pelvis (pelvis pushed forward).

If they are antagonists of the quadriceps muscles, the hamstring muscles remain no less important, since they ensure the stability of the pelvis while allowing the flexion of the leg.

Method to increase the volume of your ischios

The hamstring muscles and the sports activity

These hamstrings muscles are very much in demand by the followers of the running or even the sprint. The muscles must be stretched before the violent efforts, under pain of suffering the breakdown (typical of the sprinter). However even in other activities, such as bodybuilding, the hamstrings are to be considered and to work in conciliating relaxation and weight training. Softening will allow these muscles to avoid further stressing the trunk when moving forward. For the pure musculation of the hamstrings, it is advisable to carry out the exercises at the same time as those performed for the quadriceps in order to muscle thus the whole “thigh” and not to see a difference between the two muscular groups (the quadriceps and the ischio tibialis).

To remember

The three muscles (the femoral biceps, semitendinous and semi – membranous muscles), the hamstring muscles are born on the ischium to attach to the tibia slightly below the knee. Polyarticular muscles, they are essential in the flexion of the leg, the external rotation of the knee and the retroversion of the pelvis.

Exercises for the hamstrings and calves for a complete workout legs

If you want bigger legs, chances are you would work your quadriceps until exhaustion again and again. But with a good set of exercises for the hamstrings and calves you can just as forget all the work you have provided muscle works shred fx side effects for your quadriceps. When your thighs start to burn, you’ve lifted heavy weights, made squats, imposed your legs on heavy and difficult movements, you just started. It’s time to move to the knee and ankle flexors for even more pain. Because when it comes to increasing the volume of the legs and making them stronger, the muscles of the back of the leg are just as important as those of the front.

Ischio calf program

Legs to support you

To really see your legs gain in volume, you need to increase the weights you use. Your best option is to concentrate on training your hamstrings and calves twice a week, with a day of strength where you do rehearsals with little load and a day dedicated to muscle hypertrophy with a lot of weight , But a moderate number of repetitions. On days of strength, take two solid rest minutes between sets – if you do not need so much rest, it means you have not worked hard enough. On days when you work muscle volume, limit rest periods to 75-90 seconds.

Anatomy and description of calf muscles

Ischio

Remember the old saying “no pain, no gain” (literally: you get nothing without pain). In fact, do not just remember it – live, breathe and apply it on the days you work your legs. If you do not feel a burn and you want to stop, it probably means you need to add more weight, increase the amplitude of your movements or both. Often the hamstring and calf muscles are neglected because they are not very fun to train and to muscle, and that the basis of work costs you a lot in terms of efforts in your desire to get a better physique . All we can say is that the muscles of the calves and ischios are painful. Do not neglect them. Place your hamstring and calf muscles at the top of your exercise list during your legs day, from time to time – yes, before the quadriceps – to give them priority in your routine. And for once, do not forget the back of your legs.

How to increase the volume of your hamstrings?

A generation ago, when men with names like Arnold Schwarzenegger, Lou Ferrigno and Franco Columbu passed on the dsn reviews boards, the hamstring muscles were hardly taken into account. We did a few sets of flexions of the legs in the lying position after a few exercises for the quadriceps muscles and this was called a workout. Today, the hamstrings are just as essential to bodybuilding as the pectorals. Vertical streaks on the back of the thighs are key indicators of good condition, and the hamstring mass complements the vision of the entire leg. Yet, it is rarely a part of the body easy to develop, especially because thigh workouts often lack variety and intensity.

Method to muscle ischio

1-Set your priorities to boost your ischios

Composed of the femoral biceps (ie the biceps of the thigh), semi-tendinous and semi-membranous muscles, the hamstrings are a relatively important group of muscles. Yet it is likely that you have done much less for your thigh biceps than for the biceps in your arms, even though the latter is a much smaller muscle. Do 8 to 12 sets and 2 to 4 exercises at each workout of the hamstring muscles. Even if you are still trying to give your hamstring muscles a sufficient amount of work, it is difficult to do so if you have exhausted yourself by doing loaded squats and thigh presses before. If your back thighs are lagging behind your front thighs,

Today, many bodybuilding practitioners train their hamstrings separately from the quadriceps, giving their backs their own training sessions (usually followed by the calves and / or abdominal muscles). This is something that even an intermediate athlete may want to do. If you do not have time to do separate workouts, or if your back thighs are not late compared to the front of your thighs and you want to work your hamstrings first ( Which will decrease your resistance to exercises such as squats and thigh presses), try alternating exercises to develop your quadriceps and hamstrings.

2-Choosing a high number of repetitions does not increase the volume of the hamstring

Exercises around the hamstrings are part of bodybuilding exercises, such as abdominals, where coaches and coaches tend to think they can work the details by doing a lot of repetitions. It’s wrong. Always doing a high number of repetitions (more than 20 per set) will only decrease muscle volume and not fat. The hamstring muscles are shaped by dieting and cardio, and are rarely seen outside the Bodybuilding scenes. That said, an occasional workout with a series of 15 repetitions – rather than just the standard series of eight to twelve repetitions – should cause pain in the thighs the next morning.

Method to muscle ischio

The best exercises to have bulky hamstring muscles

3- Choose to do few repetitions to gain volume at the legs

Although most bodybuilding practitioners rarely do fewer than eight repetitions for hamstring exercises, Tom Prince often performs a series of five to seven repetitions, and his legs are among the two best hamstrings muscles The whole history of bodybuilding. A series of five rehearsals can be a good experience when your body has become accustomed to a series of 10. In our routine, precede each exercise in a series of 10 to 12 repetitions to warm you up. For your workout series, use weights that allow you to do five or six complete repetitions before you can. At least for your last set of each exercise,

4-Make slow movements

Speed ​​is one of the least used weapons in the arsenal of a bodybuilding practitioner. If you considerably slow down the performance of an exercise, it can become a new way to boost your muscles. For the exercises of this workout, take about five seconds to lower the weight and five seconds to lift the weight with each repetition.

Read: Anatomy and description of the hamstring muscles

  1. Vary your hamstring training

Leg curl training ischio

A common problem with many hamstring workouts is that people focus too much on the flexions of the legs in the lying position. This is a very good exercise, but if this is the cornerstone of your hamstring training routine, the intensity of your effort will eventually fade or your muscles will no longer respond to the stimulus and will take More volume. Fortunately, we have the solution because there are excellent exercises that you probably do not do. Replace an exercise of your workout with one of our new alternatives, or, to really tense your hamstrings, use our unique lifting exercise.

– Squats at the Smith machine: Just like the raised ground with stretched legs that work more the hamstrings than the lower back, the squats at the Smith machine can be carried out in order to carry more strain on the ischio muscles -jambiers and buttocks than on the quadriceps. Place your feet 30 to 45 cm in front of the bar and make each repetition up to your heels.

– Elevations of the thighs: This is one of the favorite exercises of Alexander Fedorov, the happy owner of the most beautiful hamstrings of Luau. Place your knees on a bench and place your ankles or heels under the support pads. Make sure your position is secure (smaller athletes may not be able to do this). While keeping your back straight, lower yourself until you are parallel to the floor, then stand upright by stretching your hamstrings and buttocks. Ask a training partner to help you until you master this challenging exercise and you can do eight rehearsals by yourself. When you can do more than 12 repetitions, start adding weight.

– Negative bends on one leg: This movement can be performed lying or sitting. In both versions, make the positive half of the repetition with both legs at a normal speed (allowing you to lift a weight heavy enough to be effective for negative repetition), then make the negative half of the repetition with one Only leg. Alternate legs. Try to take 10 seconds to lower the weight even if you will naturally speed up during your last rehearsals when you are tired.

– Leg curl to the pulley Perform flexions on one leg with a cable attached to the ankle that works. This method allows you to focus on the maximum contraction at each repetition, and it also allows you to change the position of your leg more easily. Back your thigh working a few centimeters and you will get a continuous tension that is exerted more on the hamstrings and buttocks.

6-Musclez your ischio

If you work your hamstring muscles once or twice a week on a regular basis and you do not get results, the culprit can simply be stagnant. Stop doing the same low-intensity flexions, increase the intensity and variety of your exercises. Use the routines presented here, and stimulate the growth of the muscles in the back of your leg so that they catch up.

Ectomes and mass intake or how to get rid of leanness

These two aspects of the problem are very different and must be treated independently of one another. In this article I will tell you about diet, the part of the most important problem from my point of view. And not only because my mother always told me I had to eat more.

This is because in our Western world where the main weight problems of the population revolve around obesity we ectomers, lean or whatever name we are given, are aberrations. And even when reading articles about bodybuilding we often talk about us at the bottom of the page “for ectomorphs that have a fast metabolism, remember to eat more. Eat carbohydrates, lots of carbohydrates. ”

This advice to “eat more” works very well for most people, but we are not like everyone else , which is why this board often seems naive. I mean that for the majority of people, eating a lot and gaining weight are two things that go naturally together. If you tell an average man to eat more, he will gain weight . It will probably take fat, but it will gain weight. And he will certainly love it!

Few people know that for ectomorphic people, gaining weight can prove to be really very complicated.

Eating more is simply difficult. First of all, our body has more difficulty in overfeeding than other people. Second, virtually all approaches to bodybuilding are geared towards weight loss , programs are created to reduce appetite. And thirdly, even if we manage to consume a surplus of calories, our metabolism adapts quickly.

By trying to eat more and lift more weight, we often see irregular and insufficient results. Ironically, it is often the leanest men who have the most potential in terms of muscle mass.

Our body type allows you to see extremely fast results, especially when you begin bodybuilding. Taking 1 kilo of muscle a week is quite possible when you are ectomorphic and start an intensive training program .

But lack of appetite can actually hinder these results. In this article we will discuss the metabolism and physiology of ectomorphs as well as the notion of appetite. We will see how to boost one’s diet, develop muscle mass and how the approach differs from those of “normal” people. In reality we are very advantageous over others, it is enough to know how to exploit these advantages.

Read: Nutrition and weight gain

Different physical objectives

I am not a neuropsychologist, so I will be the first to admit that appetite is above all a psychological notion. No one else writes about eating and weight gain in ectomorphs, so we have to do it ourselves.

The first thing I have done is to subscribe to scientific journals that analyze studies carried out on the sensation of appetite and satiety. The more I advanced in my research the more I realized that naturally lean people were virtually absent. There have been few studies on weight gain since the Second World War when famine was raging in Europe. Nowadays, the favorite subject of this kind of study is obviously obesity and overeating as well as the means to avoid it. And this is not a bad thing – obesity is a serious problem that is widespread in our society – but it also means that we must constantly ask ourselves whether these studies concern us or not.

This can be very confusing.

Most of the approaches to fitness , nutrition and strength training are based on the principle that everyone needs to lose weight. During my first attempts to develop my muscle mass, I lost weight – even when I used programs that needed to develop muscle. I attributed these failures to my lack of potential. And today, with twenty kilos more, I realize that all these vain efforts were due in part to a lack of understanding. On the contrary, we have immense potential.

But this lack of understanding was rather logical. For example, you have certainly already read articles about fasting at intervals – where you drastically reduce the number of meals you take each day in order to gain muscle while remaining dry. Few people know that this kind of diet program is meant for people who have a huge stomach and an ogre appetite. As these people are used to eating very rich meals, it is not a question of limiting the size of meals, but their frequency. Martin Berkhan, the creator of LeanGains, and arguably the most fervent supporter of this type of diet, is known for his insatiable appetite and his love of cakes.

Reducing the frequency of meals while increasing the amount of food they provide helps people to consume fewer calories (in total), but this type of diet is totally unsuitable for ectomorphs. The goal of fasting at intervals is to eat fewer calories without going crazy – but we already do this naturally. We have to get to the exact opposite – easily and without much effort increase the total amount of calories we consume.

Perhaps you have already heard about Paleos diets – in these diets we avoid consuming seeds, beans, nuts and fast foods to become both thin and muscular. This approach works perfectly for most people, but it is a restrictive approach to nutrition. It is a diet specially designed to eat less easily . Again, we must reach the exact opposite! Limiting the list of foods we eat is really the last thing to do. *

If you are allergic, certain foods are too expensive or you really do not like them, do not panic, it does not matter. The benefit of a non-restrictive approach to your nutrition is that once you understand the basic principles of nutrition you can eat as you see fit. A healthy and balanced approach to food is very flexible. If you opt for a herbal diet, prefer the paleo diet or try the fasting at intervals – no problem.

Since most people eat too much, almost all diets require you to remove food. As we have already tried to eat more, the first thing we need to do is add food to our diet. We have no need to restrict ourselves to any food.

Therefore, since by default most diets are based on the physiological needs of people who eat too much, we will start by learning a little more about our appetite physiology so that we can realistically and efficiently Muscle mass in ectomorphs.

Insulin sensitivity of ectomorphs.

Insulin affects your appetite tremendously. When we eat, our insulin levels increase. As our insulin levels increase, we feel more and more a sense of satiety. This is one of the reasons we stop eating.

Many ectomorphs tend to be more sensitive than others to insulin. That means two things. First, that insulin levels are related to the food we ingest; The more we eat, the higher our insulin levels are. Secondly it means that our bodies are hyper-sensitive to insulin, the higher our insulin levels are and the less we are hungry. No problem when good health and appetite go hand in hand, but this is a problem when trying to develop muscle mass and not eating enough. And we certainly do not risk eating too much, because our bodies regulate our appetite too well.

Stronger guys are generally less sensitive to insulin. As their response is less important, their reaction is different, they can absorb much more food than an ectomorph before they have achieved a sense of satiety.

The fact that they are less sensitive to insulin is a real asset when it comes to muscle development. The more muscle cells are sensitive to insulin, the less fat cells will be. The nutrients will therefore be directed towards the muscles and will be less likely to be stored in the form of fat.This helps to strengthen muscles more easily. It’s a bit the genetic jackpot for the bodybuilding practitioner.

Fortunately, as long as your approach to bodybuilding is reflected, you can improve your sensitivity and your reaction to insulin. Being thin increases your sensitivity to insulin. The practice of bodybuilding increases your sensitivity to insulin. Just like the development of muscle mass. So if you are lean and you have a certain genetic advantage that you put to use for your muscular development you will become a real monster of muscles.

At this point it is probably worth mentioning that the last thing we want to do is diet where your goal is to eat better. Our primary goal is to reduce our sensitivity to insulin in order to gain weight. I’m not trying to frighten you in any way. If you take a little fat, it really does not matter, as you will be able to lose it very quickly.

When I was really thin, I had no abdominals. I am drier today than when I weighed 60 kilos, whereas today I make 20 kilos more (but 20 kilos of muscle only), and I lift weights three times a week. It really does not matter if you do not have abdominals today. If you are thin, even lean, naturally you can easily see very easily.

I do not even care much about being really dry. I spent so much time in my life to be skinny, that today I just want to be massive and strong. For many people, it’s the same, we do not care anymore about having big biceps and an imposing torso rather than being dry and thin. What I mean is that through our natural abilities we We will have a muscular body anyway that will remain dry.

And at this level, having a high sensitivity to insulin is a real asset. But while it allows us to develop muscles while remaining thin and dry, it certainly does not help us increase our appetite.

(Do not worry, I will soon give you tips to stimulate your appetite)

The metabolism of ectomorphs

Many of us, ectomorphs, are like bottomless pits for calories. No matter how many calories we consume, the needle refuses to move on the scale, we can eat tons of food without actually noticing the slightest effect on our weight. Some experts say that most people burn the same number of calories, which means that ectomorphs overestimate the number of calories they consume. So why even when our metabolisms that are similar to calorie ovens are largely filled we still do not gain weight

Simply because the experts are wrong.

Although we burn about the same amount of calories as a normal person while we sleep, when we are active during the day, do physical exercises, and digest food we are much more energy intensive and Therefore in calories.

William Sheldon – the psychologist of the 1940s who invented the terms ectomoprhe, endomorph and mesomorph , describes our type of organism as “restless.” He was trying to link the types of personalities and the different physical ones. Great error. It is quite impossible to “guess” someone’s character according to his physique. All theories of this kind have been swept away.

The physiological characteristics are still valid and can be very useful. You absolutely can not tell who is the person based on his physical appearance, however it is quite possible to define their physical type based on their appearance. Obviously. When it comes to developing muscle mass, this can be extremely important.

And it turns out that Sheldon was holding something when he spoke of “ectomorphous agitated.”

The one where our metabolisms tend to be different from others is at the level of thermogenesis of non-exercise activity (NEAT). It is the calories that are burned during our unconscious activities – such as heat production, just standing, etc.

Most people do not consume all the calories they store, they store them in anticipation of days when they will not have enough food, it’s a natural backup mechanism. But not us. We burn a lot of calories, as if there were no tomorrows.

I never cold, for example. Never. I live in Canada, but I do not even have a winter coat. I do not have a car either, even when it’s very cold I always walk. My friends laugh at me and say that I am a real human oven. I always walk when I’m on the phone, I can not stand still between two sets of exercises at the gym, I kick my foot when I hear music and I just have trouble staying square.

How much does behavior affect my energy use? Apparently enormously. One study showed that a normal person will burn 3% more energy while sitting than lying on his back. Simply add a little agitation (like moving your feet) and you get 54% more energy than a posture released on a chair. This is also true when standing. By standing up, you consume 13% more calories than if you were lying on your back and if you are standing and moving you consume 94% more energy.

During a typical day you will consume 950 more calories if you spend most of your rest time standing and 600 if you remain sitting. And I’m not talking about the energy you consume when you make motions and produce heat, and so on.

Regarding the posture and position of the body, James Levine, the eminent researcher specializing in unconscious energy expenditure, conducted a study with ten obese and ten lean people and observed and measured their postures and movements every Half-seconds for ten days. (This study was made possible by high-tech cameras.) Lean people spent two more hours than obese people in a standing position, and burned an estimated 350 more calories per day. He also found that even when thin people gained weight this was also true, which led him to believe that it was due to a particular genetic inheritance.

For a person of 75 kilos, the difference between burning 2000 and 3500 calories each day is enormous.

And that was just the beginning, you will see that thanks to our exceptional ability to burn calories, we can get a lot if we supercharge ourselves.

The response of an ectomorphous organism to overeating

Different people will respond differently to overeating. In one study, 1000 calories were given more than their daily intake for participants for eight weeks, and they were instructed not to exercise.

By the end of the study, some participants had taken less than half a kilogram of fat while others had taken more than 5 kilos. This represents a difference of almost 10 times the amount of stored fat.

These results have left researchers perplexed for a long time, but this difference can now be attributed to unconscious movements. When supercharging forces any metabolism to accelerate its energy consumption, this is not enough to compensate for the effects of overeating. In ectomorphs, the response to boost-type stimulation is to further increase the consumption of our calorie kiln – producing more heat, moving more, and so on. This mechanism has the consequence of preserving our physique of thin person and therefore does not allow us to take volume .

Once again this stupid advice to “eat more” is absolutely useless. Our metabolism adapts very easily to overeating and this will wipe out all your efforts.

Fortunately, our goal is not simply to gain weight, but also to gain muscle. And that is a goal to how commendable. Most people are jealous of it, and they are right to be jealous. You’ve probably already seen somewhat wrapped people looking to develop their muscles by doing all sorts of cardio exercises. If they do not, they may not see their muscles under their fat. We ectomorphs do not need to do cardio exercises like other people because we burn all the extra calories almost instantly.

With a good diet and good bodybuilding exercises , you will be on the right path to develop muscles of steel. Our body adapts to the stimulus of the workout by giving priority to energy to our muscles before supplying it to our calorie oven. The calories you need biceps are not superfluous calories after all, our body makes sense. It is an incomparable asset that allows us not to store fat, but does not prevent us from developing muscle.

So by combining this ability with our increased sensitivity to insulin, we can eat huge amounts of unnecessary calories and build as much muscle mass as our bodies allow. All excess calories that will not be used to develop our muscles will not be stored as fat, they will go directly into the oven! This allows us to muscle faster than average while remaining slim, without the need to add cardio exercises or always keep an eye on your caloric surplus. However, as with most of these things, it all depends on your type of ectomorphism. Always be vigilant not to reach a point where you will trigger the storage of fats in your body. Everyone tends to grow a little bit,